We used morphological and immunocytochemical approaches to characterize and to show the behavior of cells involved in leech inflammatory responses. Leeches were injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, fluoresceinated yeasts, sulfate spheres and ciliates (Protozoa). Shortly after injection, migrating cells appeared in the area of injection. The response of the cells occurred in relation to the injected micro or macro antigens. Each injection first provoked a migration of cells towards the non-self material. Afterwards, different responses (degranulation, phagocytosis, encapsulation, melanization) occurred. The migrating cells involved in these series of processes have a similar behavior and are characterized by CD markers of macrophages, NK cells and granulocytes, which are typical of many invertebrates and vertebrates.