Artistic skills and product management
Fundamentals of computer graphics
Solomon, J. (2020, December 29). Introduction to Computer Graphics (Lecture 1): Introduction, applications of computer graphics. Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LqUu61oRdk&list=PLQ3UicqQtfNuBjzJ-KEWmG1yjiRMXYKhh&ab_channel=JustinSolomon
Fundamentals of Computer Graphics, 4th Edition. ISBN 9781315360201
Interactive Computer Graphics A Top-Down Approach with WebGL Edward Angel and Dave Shreiner Seventh Edition, Addison-Wesley 2015
Acmsiggraph. "Imaging a Black Hole with The Event Horizon Telescope | SIGGRAPH Frontiers." 15 Oct. 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=2vUj2_jjSwk&list=PLUPhVMQuDB_aWSKj7L_-3Ot_nxBze_YMy&ab_channel=ACMSIGGRAPH.
CS 4600 - Fall 2020 - Introduction to Computer Graphics. (2023, January 15). Retrieved from https://graphics.cs.utah.edu/courses/cs4600/fall2020
Yuksel, C. (2021, January 30). Intro to Graphics 00 - Opening. Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLSphLtKQ0o&list=PLplnkTzzqsZTfYh4UbhLGpI5kGd5oW_Hh&index=1&ab_channel=CemYuksel
Crane, K. (2020, September 01). Computer Graphics (CMU 15-462/662): Welcome Video. Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6yEALqsD7k&list=PL9_jI1bdZmz2emSh0UQ5iOdT2xRHFHL7E&index=1&ab_channel=KeenanCrane
Computer Graphics : Spring 2023. (2023, January 15). Retrieved from http://15462.courses.cs.cmu.edu/spring2023
Software packages (Blender)
WebGL: Up and Running . Tony Parsi. 2012. O'Reilly.
"Chrome Experiments - Experiments with Google." 20 Jan. 2023, experiments.withgoogle.com/collection/chrome.
"Some people think games are kid's stuff, but gamedev is one of the few areas that uses almost every item of the standard CS curriculum."- Dr. Sepideh Chakaveh
- CGI (computer-generated imagery). Abbreviation. common gateway interface.
- Computer graphics is as create coherent models, not fit with reality.
- It’s not about user interfaces.
History of Computer Graphics
The world of computer graphics
- Motion Graphics
- 3D Rendering
- Maya, Blender, Max.
- OpenGL, DirectX, WebGL
How do I render my models when don’t have enough computational power?
How Many FPS Can the Human Eye See? and Frame rate
30-60 is an animation.
Description and ecosystem
- Fundamentals of computer graphics.
- Basics of real-time rendering and graphics hardware.
- Basic OpenGL.
- C++ programming experience.
- Software packages.
- Graphics editor. Photoshop, Illustrator, ...
- Computer graphics. Blender, Maya, RenderMan, ...
- Video-games. Unity, ...
- Cinder (programming library)
- Graphic cards.
- Artistic skills and product management.
Disney's Nine Old Men
Computer graphics files
PDF, SVG, ...
Penrose: from mathematical notation to beautiful diagrams. (2023, January 01). Retrieved from https://penrose.cs.cmu.edu/siggraph20
Images are presented on some raster display. So, raster images are the most common way to store and process images.
Raster means converting vector images to pixel images.
Render means generating from a 3D model, 2D model, or effects to an image by a computer program. Raster displays show images as rectangular arrays of pixels. A raster image is a 2D array that stores the pixel value for each pixel.
- After Effects
Rasterization, Ray Tracing, and Ray Tracing are rendering techniques.
Vector images vs raster images
In computing, Ray Tracing is a process that draws a set of objects producing an array of pixels. From a material way, rendering means converting 3D objects to 2D images into realistic images, which considers how each object contributes to each pixel. So, if you want it, you need an image-order algorithm called Ray Tracing. Reversing reality, it takes an image based on the camera geometry, known as an array of pixels, running through each pixel in the image shoots rays through the normal surface, checking every object of the scene to see if it intersects with any of them. Also, it computes the pixel color based on the results of the ray intersection. My implementation of the algorithm in pseudocode, thanks to Appel:
for each pixel on the scene based on the camera geometry do compute the ray direction find first object hit by ray and its surface normal compute illumination calculate color
“Ray Tracing in One Weekend.” raytracing.github.io/book/RayTracingInOneWeekend.html (accessed Feb. 21, 2022)
Properties of lighting & Light rays
There are properties of lighting and lights rays. So this lesson is about the spotlight, diffuse reflection, specular reflection, refraction, shadows rays, and how does work light rays with different mediums.
* Spotlight means the intensity of a lamp. When the light comes from directly a source, it's called direct illumination. Otherwise, it's called indirect illumination, that is, either refraction or reflection.
- Reflection * Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light in a random direction on a surface. * Specular reflection is the mirror-like reflection of light in a single direction on a surface.
* Refraction signifies the change in direction of light passing from one medium. For example, a glass with water.
* Ray tracing determines shadows rays from the object intersection to the light source.
* The camera is a factor to determine the brightness and racy tracing -image plane-.
Rasterization and his graphic pipeline
The process of taking a primitive, generally a triangle, and figuring out which pixels it covers is called rasterization
Geometric transformations and projections in computer graphics are linear transformations such that they are matrices, so we will be able to operate on Linear Algebra ideas. As shown below
is called translation.
is called scaling.
is called rotating.
We are ready to introduce composite transformations, i.e. multiply matrices. means applying translation and after scaling. How we can check , but and .
- Affine space
How does a low-level library work?
Virtual cameras work similar way to real cameras simulating optics and their behavior. The camera lens is about focal length, f-stop, diameter, and their relationship is . Focal length is the distance between the lens and focal point on mm, and it’s possible manipulating in-camera with Lens Curvature. Diameter measures the diameter of the aperture on mm. Focal length classifies as a natural view (~50mm), narrow view (~150mm), and wide view (~28mm).
Another hand, the Depth of field is a region where the objects in a scene are in focus. It determines choosing of a lens, aperture, and f-stop. A narrow depth of field gets by a small f-stop. A wide depth of field gets by a bigger f-stop.
Bouncing Ball Equation
- Field of view
- Len mm
- Perspective distortion
What is an image?
A pixel is not a little square! Alvy Ray Smith
CppCon. (2023, January 13). What Is an Image? - Cpp Computer Graphics Tutorial, (GPU, GUI, 2D Graphics and Pixels Explained). Youtube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zi57OkPwzbk&ab_channel=CppCon
The elements of image formation are Objects, Viewers —cameras, and Light sources which interdepend on each other. Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Ray Tracing is an algorithm that simulates the interaction between lights and objects —how much complex interaction do we want? But, Ray tracing is not well suited to real-time applications.
Color Image has three attributes hue —color identifier, saturation, and lightness. Three-Color Theory. Additive color forms a color by adding Red (R), Green (G), and Blue (B).
Global vs local lighting.
Human visual system
The human visual system has two types of sensors: Rods and Cones. We have three primary colors.
Synthetic Camera Model
We separate objects, viewers, and light sources. Two-dimensional graphics is a special case of three-dimensional graphics.
Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life
Our concern is building programs device-independent.
We program WebGL programs as
Describe page Define shaders Compute Send data to GPU Render data
You can do operations in CPU or GPU, in software, we say application code or GLSL code —shaders. If you program with application code your program is slower but easy to learn if you program with GLSL code your program is faster but you must start thinking differently.
Lights and Materials
We have different types of lights, Point sources , distributed sources
Near and far sources
Material properties are absorption and scattering.
The Graphics Pipeline
put geometric data in an array accepted by GPU send array to GPU tell GPU as render (Triangles, Points, ...)
Vertex processor. Object coordinates, Camera coordinates, Screen coordinates. When you program graphics you write this by the Vertex shader. The vertex shader receives a vertex and its attributes.
Primitive assembler. Line segments, Polygons, Curves, and Segmentation.
Clipper. Ignore not visible objects.
Rasterizer. Produce fragments (i.e. potential pixels) into a frame buffer.
Fragment processor. When you program graphics you write this by the fragment shader. The fragment shader receives a vertex and its attributes.
- Object-order rendering.
How does a developer write his own animation?
The developer writes vertices and modes -geometric objects, and the computer interpolates.
Curves? Chain of line segments.
Polygons? Break them up into triangles.
- INPUT: Geometric primitive by clipper.
- It enumerates the pixels.
- It interpolates values.
- OUTPUT: A set of fragments -pixels, with their information, including color, location, and depth- for each primitive in the frame buffer.
- A raster is a matrix of pixels.
- Geometric primitive to pixels is called rasterization.
- Triangles are the most often used primitive.
- A fragment shader is a shader about fragments.
- A vertex shader is a shader about vertices.
- A shader is a program that runs over GPU.
- It’s implemented to improve rendering performance.
Computer Graphics in Games
Imaging systems, visual science, and computer vision
Programming Games Wiki. (2022, October 26). Retrieved from https://programminggames.org/Main_Page
Millar, H. (2006). Videogames: content and responsibility. SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph., 40(3), 7-es. doi: 10.1145/1186743.1186753
Computer graphics. Geometrical computer problems.
- Convex hull.